Glossary Terms:

Marketplace: Price Increase or Price-Gouging?

Glossary terms from:


One of many choices or courses of action that might be taken in a given situation.


Any activity or organization that produces or exchanges goods or services for a profit.


Attempts by two or more individuals or organizations to acquire the same goods, services, or productive and financial resources. Consumers compete with other consumers for goods and services. Producers compete with other producers for sales to consumers.


People who use goods and services to satisfy their personal needs and not for resale or in the production of other goods and services.


A conclusion reached after considering alternatives and their results.


The quantity of a good or service that buyers are willing and able to buy at all possible prices during a period of time.


The allocation or dividing up of the goods and services a society produces.


Trading a good or service for another good or service, or for money.


Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.


Money paid regularly, at a particular rate, for the use of borrowed money.

Long Run

A period of time long enough for firms to change the quantities of all the resources they use; the exact amount of time varies depending on the industry.

Market Economy

An economy that relies on a system of interdependent market prices to allocate goods, services, and productive resources and to coordinate the diverse plans of consumers and producers, all of them pursuing their own self-interest.


Anything that is generally accepted as final payment for goods and services; serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value and a standard of value. Characteristics of money are portability, stability in value, uniformity, durability and acceptance.


The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.


A good or service that can be used to satisfy a want.


The basic kinds of resources used to produce goods and services: land or natural resources, human resources (including labor and entrepreneurship), and capital.


Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.


The situation that results when the quantity demanded for a product exceeds the quantity supplied. Generally happens because the price of the product is below the market equilibrium price.


Use money now to buy goods and services.


The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a given period of time. Normally, as the price of a good or service rises (or falls), the quantity supplied of the good or service rises (or falls).


Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.